Tuesday, 5 June 2018

Vertical STD Transmission and its Effects


images (6)Contracting a sexually transmitted infection (STI) during or prior to pregnancy may cause damage to the developing fetus, which may result in physical and mental abnormalities or even the loss of the baby. Some infections are transmitted from the mother to the child through the placenta during pregnancy, affecting the fetus inside of the womb. Others can spread during the birthing process or postnatal period (through breastfeeding or direct contact). According to Centers for Disease Control, “The harmful effects of STDs in babies may include stillbirth (a baby that is born dead), low birth weight, conjunctivitis (eye infection), pneumonia, neonatal sepsis (infection in the baby’s blood stream), neurologic damage, blindness, deafness, acute hepatitis, meningitis, chronic liver disease, and cirrhosis.” The following list provides information on specific STDs and the potential threats they pose to pregnant mothers. It is crucial that women protect themselves and their children by learning how to avoid these infections and getting sufficient prenatal care.


Chlamydia
Although very easily curable, chlamydia is the most prevalent STD in the United States, possibly because it is often asymptomatic in both women and men. Women who have chlamydia during the early stages of pregnancy run an increased risk of miscarriage or premature delivery. Chlamydia may be transmitted from the genitals of the mother to the newborn child as it passes through the vaginal opening during childbirth, particularly to the baby’s respiratory system and eyes. This severe eye infection (trachoma) may cause blindness and requires immediate antibiotic treatment. In addition to physical damage, the child can also catch pneumonia, which is particularly dangerous for infants. It is crucial that the mother is also treated with antibiotics to rid herself of the infection and prevent a ping-pong cycle of re-infection between her and the child.

Bacterial Vaginosis
Bacterial vaginosis occurs when there is an imbalance of “normal” bacteria in a woman’s vagina, typically due to hazardous events like douching and engaging in unprotected sexual activity with multiple partners. Pregnant women who are infected with bacterial vaginosis are at risk of giving birth to premature and underweight babies (less than 5.5 pounds). This condition can easily be treated with a series of antibiotics, however it may return and require multiple treatments.

Gonorrhea
Gonorrhea is another prevalent bacterial infection that can grow inside of the reproductive tract, mouth, anus, eyes and throat. A pregnant woman with gonorrhea also has an increased chance of having a miscarriage or premature delivery. Like chlamydia, gonorrhea is commonly transferred to the child during the birthing process after the baby makes physical contact with the mother’s infected region. A child who acquires gonorrhea may develop blindness, pink eye (conjunctivitis), and joint infections. Gonorrhea is often asymptomatic for both males and females, which means women who are pregnant or planning on becoming pregnant must take extra precautions with sexual exposure and get tested.

Hepatitis B
Mothers with hepatitis B have an increased risk of a premature delivery and can transmit the infection to their child. Fortunately, the development of new vaccines (for both adults and young children) has been successful in helping to prevent transmission. Because hepatitis B is a viral strain, it cannot be reversed once a person is diagnosed as positive. Therefore, it is crucial to take the necessary steps to ensure the health of yourself and newborn child.

Herpes
According to the CDC, “It is important that women avoid contracting herpes during pregnancy because a newly acquired infection during late pregnancy poses a greater risk of transmission to the baby.” If an infant does become infected during the birthing process, he or she may acquire a deadly infection. Although the transmission of genital and anal herpes during delivery is rare, the baby can become infected if the woman has an active outbreak anywhere along the birth canal (the virus is most concentrated in broken blisters). In order to prevent the herpes from spreading to the child, the mother can take anti-viral pills and the doctor can perform a cesarean section.

HIV/AIDS
According to Avert.org, an online charity group dedicated to preventing the transmission of HIV/AIDS, “Nine out of ten children infected with HIV were infected through their mother either during pregnancy, labor and delivery or breastfeeding. Without treatment, around 15-30 percent of babies born to HIV positive women will become infected with HIV during pregnancy and delivery and a further 5-20 percent will become infected through breastfeeding.” In wealthy nations, the risk that the mother will pass HIV to her newborn child is extremely rare due to the development of effective antiretroviral drugs and highly trained medical personnel.

HPV (Genital Warts)
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the world, although transmission from mother to infant during childbirth is highly unlikely. If a woman is infected with HPV, the medicines that she receives may even make the warts on the vagina grow larger. If the warts are left untreated, they may become significant enough to block the woman’s vaginal opening and prevent the fetus from passing through the birthing canal. If this happens, the alternative option is to deliver the baby through a cesarean section (although this issue is highly debated; some medical practitioners believe performing a C-section has no benefit to the health of the child). Treatment of the mother's warts is typically delayed until after the child is born.

Syphilis
Syphilis a bacterial disease that can be transmitted from mother to child during and after pregnancy. The CDC reports, “Depending on how long a pregnant woman has been infected, she may have a high risk of having a stillbirth (a baby born dead) or of giving birth to a baby who dies shortly after birth.” Children who survive the birth must be treated immediately to avoid seizures, physical abnormalities in the brain, eyes, heart, ears, skin and bones and possibly death. Upon diagnosis, both the mother and child are treated with antibiotics in order to prevent further transmission.

Trichomoniasis
 Mothers with trichomoniasis have a higher chance of giving birth preterm. The child can contract the infection after birth and run a fever. Medication is given to both the mother and child to cure the infection.

In order to guarantee protection from sexually transmitted diseases during pregnancy, both viral and bacterial, it is important to get tested regularly, abstain from sexual activity with multiple partners, and always use protection. If you are currently pregnant and sexually active, be sure that you are in a strictly monogamous relationship with a partner who has also been tested and is free of infection.

To submit abstracts for STD 2018, visit: http://bit.ly/stdabst2018
For registration, visit: http://bit.ly/stdreg2018

3 comments:

  1. The doctors said Herpes virus do not have medical cure because the virus is capable of hiding within the human cells, it remains protected from your immune system. Herpes isn’t a special virus – your immune system has the tools to fight it back. But because it is able to lay dormant in protected cells, your immune system is unable to remove it from your body,But with strong reactive herbal medication is capable of getting rid of the virus gradually and totally from your body without damaging any of your cells,natural herbs kills the virus totally not just reducing the out break. Get natural herbs cure from Dr. Oshuku (droshuku@gmail.com) or whatsAPP him +2348130419838

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. It’s a miracle that I am alive today. I encounter herpes virus for good four (4) years, six (6) months and twelve (12) day with my calculations, before I meet the great Dr. ODUWA. I am LEOKADIA STELLA Fresno California, united state of America and I was affected with herpes virus. Herpes is a viral infection cause by the Herpes simplex virus, marked by painful, watery blister in the skin or mucous membrane or on the genitals. This was what I suffered for good four years. I have visited CVS Pharmacy in Fresno for treatment but no improvement. I meet Dr. ODUWA online while I was searching for herpes cure I read a testimony about his work. I give a try that now becomes a testimony in my life. I contacted Dr. ODUWA via his E-mail (DR.ODUWASPELLHOME@GMAIL .COM) and he did not responds to me in time and I went back to the same testimony for his mobile number and I called him immediately (+2348070685053) and he respond to my call. He welcome me as a daughter and I explain my four years situation to him and he said is done just as I have contacted him and I believed in him. Dr. ODUWA sends me some herbal medication for herpes cure and he gave me instruction on what to do and I obeyed his instruction. Changes started after three days of applying the herbal medication. I went to the same CVS Pharmacy in Fresno for test and i was herpes negative. I do not know how to thanks Dr. ODUWA for saving my life. To God be the Glory, I am living healthy with my family today.

      Indeed, Dr. ODUWA is a great man

      and the only thing he requested from me is to share my Testimony for the world to see for a safe living from herpes viral disease and just as I did.

      God bless Dr. ODUWA for his good work....

      Delete
  2. It’s a miracle that I am alive today. I encounter herpes virus for good four (4) years, six (6) months and twelve (12) day with my calculations, before I meet the great Dr. ODUWA. I am LEOKADIA STELLA Fresno California, united state of America and I was affected with herpes virus. Herpes is a viral infection cause by the Herpes simplex virus, marked by painful, watery blister in the skin or mucous membrane or on the genitals. This was what I suffered for good four years. I have visited CVS Pharmacy in Fresno for treatment but no improvement. I meet Dr. ODUWA online while I was searching for herpes cure I read a testimony about his work. I give a try that now becomes a testimony in my life. I contacted Dr. ODUWA via his E-mail (DR.ODUWASPELLHOME@GMAIL .COM) and he did not responds to me in time and I went back to the same testimony for his mobile number and I called him immediately (+2348070685053) and he respond to my call. He welcome me as a daughter and I explain my four years situation to him and he said is done just as I have contacted him and I believed in him. Dr. ODUWA sends me some herbal medication for herpes cure and he gave me instruction on what to do and I obeyed his instruction. Changes started after three days of applying the herbal medication. I went to the same CVS Pharmacy in Fresno for test and i was herpes negative. I do not know how to thanks Dr. ODUWA for saving my life. To God be the Glory, I am living healthy with my family today.

    Indeed, Dr. ODUWA is a great man

    and the only thing he requested from me is to share my Testimony for the world to see for a safe living from herpes viral disease and just as I did.

    God bless Dr. ODUWA for his good work....

    ReplyDelete