Session 1: Types of STDs
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infectious diseases that are transmitted from a person to another through sexual contact or blood of an infected person. The pathogens such as bacteria, virus, fungi, protozoa are responsible for the disease transmission. Bacterial STDs are Syphilis, Gonorrhoea, Chlamydia, Chancroid. Viral STDs include HIV/AIDS, Human papillomavirus, Hepatitis, Genital Herpes. Trichomoniasis is a STD caused by parasitic protozoan. Candidiasis is considered to be an fungal STD which is spread by fungus Candida albicans. Most of the sexually transmitted diseases such as viral STDs have no cure but the disease can be controlled with proper treatment while bacterial, fungal and protozoan STDs can be cured with antifungals and antibiotics.
- Bacterial STDs
- Viral STDs
- Protozoan STDs
- Fungal STDs
Session 2: Evolution of STDs
The evolution of the STD pathogens are caused by the selective pressures of the host-immune response, modern drugs, vaccines or by microbial competition. Through evolutionary phase, a pathogen can become more or less virulent. The phylogeny, epidemiology and origin studies on sexually transmitted diseases provides valuable data on the genetic transition traits in both host and pathogen. The evolutionary study of the disease-causing pathogen provides the disease transmission and diversity among the human population. The clinical epidemiologyand phylogenetic study paves way for new insights for the development of drugs and therapies against the multiple drug resistance.
Session 3: Immunopathogenesis
The immune system helps in elimination of the invading microbial pathogens in the body through a series of defense mechanism. The innate immune response of the body provides first line of defense against the pathogens which is fast and non-specific response while adaptive immune response is specific and slow. The study of immunopathogenesis allows us to explore the disease transmission process, pathogen-host interactions, immune defense against the STD pathogens. This allows us to understand the pathological condition and progression of the disease and also the genetic factors influencing the immune defense against STD transmission. The genetic factors influence can be used for the development of gene therapies that triggers immune reaction against the disease-causing pathogens in the body.
- Disease Transmission
- Pathogen-Host Interaction
- Innate Immune Response
- Adaptive Immune Response
- Genetic Factors
Session 4: Treatment Strategies
Antibiotics are used for treating the STDs caused by bacteria and protozoa. The bacterial STDs can be cured if the infection is properly diagnosed and treated. Several antibiotic resistant strains of pathogens have developed which pose a serious threat for health of the STD affected individuals. For viral STDs, there are no complete cure but progression of the disease can be controlled by antiretroviral therapies which use multiple antiretroviral drugs to decrease the disease proliferation and reduce other opportunistic infections. Gene therapy involves gene editing approaches which can provide a better and safer alternative to other existing drugs. Novel and emerging treatment strategies can provide a solution for the increasing drug resistance in the pathogens.
- Antibiotic Therapy
- Antiretroviral Combination Therapy
- Gene Therapy
Session 5: STDs Prevention
Sexually Transmitted Diseases are transmitted from a person to another through sexual contact or blood transfusions from an infected person or needle sharing, or from mother to infant during pregnancy, labor and breastfeeding. STDs can be prevented through vaccination, screening and through promoting safer sexual behaviour, early health-care seeking behaviour, prevention and care activities. Pregnant women affected with STD must take proper treatment to prevent the vertical transmission of STD. Most STDs cannot be cured and leads to infertility, birth defects in infants, co-infections, opportunistic infections and many other health issues.
- Effective Healthcare Systems
- Preconception Care
- Prenatal Care
Session 6: Advanced Diagnostic Tools
Diagnosis of STDs are done by serological assays, amplification techniques, immunological diagnosis attains accurate result of the diagnosis. Point-of-care test enables rapid screening of Syphilis and allows treatment without delay. Nucleic acid amplification tests monitor the infection trends and helps in the adaptation of treatment protocols. Drug-resistance test provides the provisions for identifying drug resistance in the STDswhich aids in overcoming the resistance and provide a better treatment. Further improvements in the diagnosis method can help in rapid and cost-effective method for screening of the STDs.
- Nucleic acid Tests
- Serological Assays
- Amplification Techniques
- Immunological Diagnosis
- Drug-Resistance Testing
- Point- of-Care Test
Session 7: Drug Development and Research
Drug development and research is the development and invention of new drugs and improvement of existing drugs. Continuous progress in drug development and research field is necessary for invention of new drugs and drug targets for STDs. Identification of the drug target is the basis of the drug development process, this can be done through various computational approaches. Gene editing technology such as CRISPR seeks to eliminate the latent as well active HIV infection in the human which would be more effective in the treatment of AIDS. Various viral inhibitors such as entry inhibitors, maturation inhibitors are designed to inhibit the replication of the virus inside the host cell.
- New Drugs and Drug Targets
- Integrase Inhibitors
- Entry Inhibitors
- Maturation Inhibitors
- Gene Editing
Session 8: Vaccines Development
A highly effective method for controlling infectious diseases is vaccination, it helps in prevention of high risk health issues. Prophylactic vaccines are those used for prevention while therapeutic vaccines are used for treatment of the specific disease. Sexually transmitted diseases are spread by pathogens such as bacteria, virus, fungi and protozoa. Many viral STDs doesn't have cure hence preventing the infection through vaccination is a best method. Vaccines are developed for Hepatitis and Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection and for HIV and Herpes virus vaccines are being developed. Vaccination is the primary solution for eradication of sexually transmitted diseases in human.
- Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis
- Post-Exposure Prophylaxis
- Therapeutic Vaccines
- Advancements in Vaccine Technology
- HIV and Genital herpes Vaccine Development
Session 9: Nanotechnology in HIV Treatment
Nanotechnology is the science and engineering of structures that are 1–100 nm in size. Nanomedicine is a branch of medicine which is employed in preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Using nanoparticles, effective timely release of drugs to the infected areas/organs are possible which improves specificity of drug action. HIV/AIDS patients face a major problem where the virus resides in latent reservoirs makes it hard to reach for drugs. Nanoparticles has the ability to travel through the body with less interruption which aids in effective release of drugs at HIV virus reservoirs at the specific target. Therapeutic nanoparticles have higher specificity for the drug targets which enhances the treatment efficiency and better cure for the affected individual.
- Drug Delivery System
- Drug Nanosuspension
- Therapeutic Nanomaterials
- Nanoparticle Based Vaccines
Session 10: Phytochemicals in STDs Treatment
Plants contain a wide range of substances that are used for treating chronic as well as acute infectious diseases. Many modern drugs in use have been developed from the medicinal plants which has been used by indigenous people. Phytochemicals are chemicals secreted by plants that have disease preventive properties that is used by the plants to protect itself from diseases. Antimicrobial activity of the plant sources can act as a better drug for the strains that has developed multiple drug resistance to antibiotics. Many bacterial STDs can be combated using phytochemicals produced by the medicinal plants. Pharmacological effects of the bio active compounds in the plants must be explored to produce a cure for the multiple drug resistant bacterial STDs.
- Antimicrobial Effect of Phytochemicals
- Phytoconstituents and its Effects on STDs
- Novel Therapeutic Drugs
- Multi-Drug Resistance and Phytochemical Drugs
Session 11: Drug Resistance and Mutation
The infectious pathogens mutate under certain circumstances to overcome the pressure inflicted upon them. Such organisms develop resistance to the drug in use. This proves to be a major problem in the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Human immunodeficiency virus has developed resistance to the antiretroviral drug provided. Hence combination antiretroviral therapies are used for treating AIDS which involves using two or more antiretroviral drugs together. Several bacterial species has also developed resistance to the antibiotics provided for the treatment. The mutation of the pathogens has led to development of drug resistance against many antibiotics and antiretroviral drugs.
- Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors Resistance
- Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors Resistance
- Protease Inhibitors Resistance
- Antibiotic Resistance
- Antiviral Drug Resistance
Session 12: STDs and Cancer
Sexually transmitted diseases increases the risk of being affected by cancer. Among the STDs which lead to cancer, human papillomavirus infection is found to cause cervical cancer in women and penile cancer in men. It is also responsible for the development of oropharyngeal cancer in both sexes. Untreated STDs has a higher risk for leading to development of cancer. The progression of cancer in people affected by STD must be analyzed to understand the causative agents of the cancer.
- Oropharyngeal Cancer
- Cervical Cancer
- Penile Cancer
- Prostate Cancer
Session 13: Co-Infection of STDs
Gonorrhoea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis cause immune reactions which leads to inflammation that can easily be infected with HIV. Co-infection is a condition where a person actively infected with STD is infected with another STD. when a STI infected individual is prone to another infection due to immune compromise they are less able to mount a protective response against sexually transmitted pathogens. Treating co-infected individuals can be challenging and the treatment methods must be analyzed and modified to their needs.
- HIV and Gonorrhea
- HIV and Hepatitis
- HIV and Kidney disease
- HIV and Tuberculosis
Session 14: Infertility and Birth Defects
When an STD infection is left untreated in women, it may be lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Being affected by pelvic inflammatory disease may lead to infertility or ectopic pregnancy in pregnant women. When the mother is infected by STD, the fetus or new born is mostly infected. STDs during pregnancy can lead to miscarriage, birth defects including blindness, deafness, bone deformities, and intellectual disability, stillbirth, premature birth. In males, reduced fertility or infertility is most common side effect of the disease.
- Ectopic Pregnancy
- Premature Birth
- Neonatal Sepsis
- Neurological Defects
Session 15: Vertical STD Transmission
Vertical STD transmission is the process of transfer of STD from a mother to infant perinatally or postnatally. During delivery, when the baby passes through the infected canal, it can contract the STDs such as chlamydia, gonorrhoea, genital herpes from the infected mother. Syphilis and HIV can be contracted from the mother during fetus development. Postnatal transmission of the disease is possible through breastfeeding the baby. Vertical STD transmission poses serious threat to the health of the baby.
- Perinatal Transmission
- Postnatal Transmission
- Prevention of STD Transmission
- Pregnancy Care and Treatment
Session 16: Paediatric STDs
Sexually Transmitted Diseases are an important cause of morbidity in paediatric patients. The transmission occurs via transplacental, intrapartum, and postpartum exposure. When an infant contracts STD from mother, it can affect the skin, eyes, mouth, central nervous system, and can also lead to organ failure. With treatment, the chances of transmitting HIV from mother to infant is low. Proper awareness, treatment and diagnosis is needed to prevent the transmission of STDs among young people.
- Clinical Manifestation
- Early Diagnosis
- Risk Factors
- Preventive Measures
Session 17: Multimorbidities and complications
Multi-morbidities is the presence of two or more chronic diseases at the same time. Super infection or re-infection is the condition where a person with HIV infection acquires infection with the sub-type of HIV. Re-infection affects the treatment which can deteriorate the health of the affected individual. The STDs affected individual suffers from other social and emotional complications which may also have adverse effects in the health of the individual. Multiple morbidities associated with the disease causes more damage to the health as the immune system would be compromised by the STD.
- Opportunistic Infection
- Behavioral Complications
- Social Complications
Session 18: Public Awareness and Knowledge of STDs
Educational and awareness programs must be conducted to improve the public knowledge about the sexually transmitted diseases. People affected by sexually transmitted diseases have dramatically increased, millions of people are affected by the disease due to lack of awareness. Public must be aware about the impact of STDs on the lives of the affected people and the importance of preventing, screening and treating STDs. Poor knowledge about the STDs lead to increased health issues such as ectopic pregnancies, infertility and other complications. STDs are a major health issue that affects mostly young people, not only in developing countries but in developed countries also.
- Impact of STDs
- STD Screening
- Risk Awareness
- Prevention Education
- Community Awareness