Wednesday, 3 October 2018

“AIDS-defining” conditions


HIV is a virus that attacks CD4 cells (T cells). These white blood cells serve as helper cells for the immune system. CD4 cells send a biological SOS signal to other immune system cells to go on the offensive against infections.

When a person contracts HIV, the virus merges with their CD4 cells. The virus then hijacks and uses the CD4 cells to multiply. As a result, there are fewer CD4 cells to fight infections.

Opportunistic infections and diseases

With HIV, a weakened immune system increases vulnerability to several opportunistic infections, cancers, and other conditions. The CDC refers to these as “AIDS-defining” conditions. If someone has one of these conditions, the HIV infection has advanced to stage 3 HIV (AIDS), regardless of the number of CD4 cells in their blood.

Following are some of the more common opportunistic diseases. Becoming knowledgeable about these health risks is the first step in protecting against them.

Candidiasis

Candidiasis encompasses several infections in different areas of the body caused by Candida, a genus of fungi. These infections include oral thrush and vaginitis. A fungal infection is considered AIDS-defining when found in the esophagus, bronchi, trachea, or lungs.

Powerful and sometimes quite toxic antifungal medications are used to treat candidiasis. A healthcare provider will recommend a specific medication based on the location of infection.

For instance, they may prescribe these medications for vaginitis caused by candidiasis:
  • butoconazole (Gynazole)
  • clotrimazole
  • miconazole (Monistat)

If systemic infection is present, treatment may include medications like:
  • fluconazole (Diflucan)
  • itraconazole (Sporanox)
  • posaconazole (Noxafil)
  • micafungin (Mycamine)
  • amphotericin B (Fungizone)

Cryptococcal meningitis

Cryptococcus is a common fungus found in soil and bird droppings. Some varieties also grow in areas surrounding trees, and one variety particularly prefers eucalyptus trees. If inhaled, Cryptococcus may cause meningitis. This is an infection of the membranes around the brain and spinal cord.

Very potent (and quite often toxic) antifungal medications are used to initially treat cryptococcal meningitis, as are frequent spinal taps. These medications may include in combination:
  • amphotericin B
  • flucytosine (Ancobon)
  • fluconazole
  • itraconazole
This condition can be fatal if not treated promptly. Long-term suppressive therapy is often used with somewhat less toxic medications for people with HIV.

Cryptosporidiosis

A tiny parasite that lives in the intestines of humans and animals is responsible for cryptosporidiosis. Most people get the disease by drinking contaminated water or eating contaminated produce.

Cryptosporidiosis is an unpleasant diarrheal illness for healthy people. However, for those who are HIV-positive, it can last longer and cause more severe symptoms.
A medication called nitazoxanide (Alinia) is normally prescribed to treat the disease.

Cytomegalovirus

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is virus most commonly thought of as causing serious eye disease in people with weakened immune systems. It can potentially lead to blindness.

CMV can also lead to illness in other areas of the body, such as the digestive tract and parts of the nervous system.

There are currently no medications to cure CMV. However, several powerful antiviral medications can treat the infection. These include:
  • gancliclovir (Zirgan)
  • valgancilovir (Valcyte)
  •  foscarnet (Foscavir) 
  • cidofovir (Vistide)
In people with severely weakened immune systems, these CMV medications often need to be given at significant doses over the long term.

However, the damage from CMV infection may slow with the use of antiretroviral therapy. This can result in the rebuilding of the immune system (as demonstrated by clinically significant rises in CD4 count). Anti-CMV therapy may potentially be changed to easier-to-tolerate suppressive treatments.

Herpes simplex viruses

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is characterized by sores on the mouth, lips, and genitals. Anyone can get herpes, but people with HIV experience increased frequency and severity of outbreaks.

There is no cure for herpes. However, relatively easy-to-tolerate medications, taken long term, can alleviate symptoms of the virus.

Pneumocystis pneumonia

Pneumocystis pneumonia (PJP) is a fungal pneumonia that can be fatal if it’s not diagnosed and treated early. PJP is treated with antibiotics. The risk of a person with HIV developing PJP rises so high that preventive antibiotic therapy may be used if their CD4 count drops below 200 cells per microliter (cells/µL).

Salmonella septicaemia

Commonly referred to as “food poisoning,” salmonellosis is a bacterial infection of the intestines. The bacteria responsible is most often transmitted via food or water that has been contaminated with feces.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reports that those with weakened immune systems, such as people living with HIV, have at least a 20 times greater risk of salmonellosis. Salmonellosis can spread into the blood, joints, and organs.

Antibiotics are commonly prescribed to treat this infection.

Toxoplasmosis

Toxoplasmosis is caused by parasites in contaminated food. The disease can also be contracted from cat feces.

The risk of significant disease from toxoplasmosis infection rises substantially once the CD4 count drops below 100 cells/µL. An HIV-positive person should ideally avoid all contact with cat feces or any other source of toxoplasmosis exposure.

People who have severely weakened immune systems (less than or equal to 100 CD4 cells/µL) should receive the same preventive antibiotic therapy as that for PJP.

Toxoplasmosis is treated with antimicrobial medications such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim).

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) may seem like a disease from the past, but it’s actually the leading cause of death for individuals who have HIV.

TB is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria and is spread through the air. TB generally affects the lungs and has two forms: latent TB and active TB disease.
Individuals with HIV are more likely to become sick with TB.

The disease is treated over the course of six to nine months with a combination of several medications, including:

  • isoniazid (INH)
  • rifampin (Rifadin)
  • ethambutol (Myambutol)
  • pyrazinamide
With treatment, both latent and active TB can be managed, but without treatment, TB can lead to death.

Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)

Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) organisms are present in most everyday environments. They rarely cause problems for people with healthy immune systems. For those with weakened immune systems, however, MAC organisms can make their way into the body through the GI system and spread. When the organisms spread, they may lead to MAC disease.

This disease causes symptoms such as fever and diarrhea, but it usually isn’t fatal. It can be treated through antimycobacterials and antiretroviral therapy.


Invasive cervical cancer

Cervical cancer begins in the cells lining the cervix. The cervix is located between the uterus and vagina. Cervical cancer is known to be caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Transmission of this virus is extremely common among all sexually active women. But studies have clearly demonstrated that the risk of contracting HPV rises substantially as HIV progresses.

For this reason, HIV-positive women should undergo regular pelvic exams with Pap tests. Pap tests can detect early cervical cancer.

Cervical cancer is considered invasive when it spreads outside the cervix. Treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy.

Kaposi sarcoma

Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is linked to infection by a virus called human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8). It causes cancerous tumors of the body’s connective tissues. Dark, purplish skin lesions are associated with KS.

KS isn’t curable, but its symptoms often improve or resolve completely with antiretroviral therapy. Several other treatments are available for people with KS. These include radiation therapy, intralesional chemotherapy, systemic chemotherapy, and retinoids.

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) is a cancer of lymphocytes, cells that are part of the immune system. Lymphocytes are found throughout the body in such places as the lymph nodes, digestive tract, bone marrow, and spleen.

Various treatments are used for NHL, including chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and stem cell transplants.

Source: https://www.healthline.com/health/hiv-aids/opportunistic-infections

3 comments:

  1. Hiv disease for the last 3 years and had pain hard to eat and cough are nightmares,especially the first year At this stage, the immune system is severely weakened, and the risk of contracting opportunistic infections is much greater. However, not everyone with HIV will go on to develop AIDS. The earlier you receive treatment, the better your outcome will be.I started taking ARV to avoid early death but I had faith in God that i would be healed someday.As a Hiv patent we are advise to be taking antiretroviral treatments to reduce our chance of transmitting the virus to others , few weeks ago i came on search on the internet if i could get any information on Hiv treatment with herbal medicine, on my search i saw a testimony of someone who has been healed from Hiv her name was Achima Abelard and other Herpes Virus patent Tasha Moore also giving testimony about this same man,Called Dr Itua Herbal Center.I was moved by the testimony and i contacted him by his Email.drituaherbalcenter@gmail.com We chatted and he send me a bottle of herbal medicine I drank it as he instructed me to.After drinking it he ask me to go for a test that how i ended my suffering life of Hiv patent,I'm cured and free of Arv Pills.I'm forever grateful to him Drituaherbalcenter.Here his contact Number +2348149277967...He assure me he can cure the following disease..Hiv,Cancer,Herpes Virus,Epilepsy, fibromyalgia ,ALS,Hepatitis,Copd,Parkinson disease.Genetic disease,Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva,Factor V Leiden Mutation ,Fatal Familial Insomnia ,Dupuytren's disease,Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva,Fluoroquinolone Toxicity Syndrome,Inflammatory bowel disease ,Huntington's disease ,Diabetes,Fibroid...

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  2. • This is real take it serious, i am JOHNSON JUDITH i am from Ireland. Who will believe that a herbal medicine can cure herpes, I never believe that this will work, i have spend a lot money getting drugs from the hospital to keep me and my son healthy, it got to a point that i was waiting for death to come because i was broke, one day i heard about this great man called Dr ODUWA who is well known for Herpes, HIV, and Cancer cure, i decided to email him I didn't believe him that much, I just wanted to give him a try, he replied my mail and Needed some Information about me, then I sent them to him, he prepared a herbal medicine (CURE) and, he gave my details to the Courier Office. they told me that 4-8 days I will receive the package and after receiving it, i took the medicine as prescribed by him at the end of the two weeks, he told me to go to the hospital for a checkup, and i went, surprisingly after the test the doctor confirm me Herpes simplex virus negative, and my son and i thought it was a joke, i went to other hospital and was also negative, thank you for saving our life's, I promise I will always testify of your good works. If you are herpes simplex virus patient, contact him and I am sure you will get cured, contact him via: dr.oduwaspellhome@gmail.com or whatsapp him at +2348070685053.
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  3. It was during my research on HIV/Herpes that I stumbled upon the Hiv/Herpes information; information which is quite easy to find when doing a search for STD on google. I was into conspiracy at the time thought of HIV/Herpes Cured' being a conspiracy was something Ignorance though,I found pretty interesting about herbal medicine. I asked questions about the Herbal cure's on official HIV/Herpes websites and I was banned for doing so by moderators who told me that I was parroting Hiv/Herpes propaganda. This reinforced my belief that there is a cure for Hiv/Herpes Then i found a lady from germany name Achima Abelard Dr Itua Cure her Hiv so I send him a mail about my situation then talk more about it and send me his herbal medicine I drank for two weeks.And today I'm Cured no Hiv/Herpes in my life,I searched for Hiv/Herpes groups to attempt to make contact with people in order to learn more about Hiv/Herpes Herbal Cure's I believed at this time that you with the same disease this information is helpful to you and I wanted to do the best I could to spread this information in the hopes of helping other people.That Dr Itua Herbal Medicine makes me believes there is a hope for people suffering from,Parkinson's disease,Schizophrenia,Cancer,Scoliosis,Fibromyalgia,Fluoroquinolone Toxicity Syndrome Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva.Fatal Familial Insomnia Factor V Leiden Mutation ,Epilepsy Dupuytren's disease,Desmoplastic small-round-cell tumor Diabetes ,Coeliac disease,Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease,Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy, Ataxia,Arthritis,Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis,Alzheimer's disease,Adrenocortical carcinoma.Asthma,Allergic diseases.Hiv_ Aids,Herpes,Inflammatory bowel disease ,Copd,Diabetes,Hepatitis,I read about him online how he cure Tasha and Tara,Conley,Mckinney and many more suffrin from all kind of disease so i contacted him . He's a herbal doctor with a unique heart of God, Contact Emal..drituaherbalcenter@gmail.com Phone or whatsapp..+2348149277967.

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